[D8933ACT], Memorandum, Thomas Alva Edison, 1889

Item

Abstract

[TAE estimate for Niagara Falls power plant - see also X507 891127 and correspondence with Edward Dean Adams] 20000 h.p####Niagara to Buffalo####2 250 horsepower making 500 e hp together coupled & driven by Ropes--allowing plenty ropes and Extra large shaft to prevent terrain as but 57 @ 60 amperes pass brush commutators brush need not be large New Type dynamo, wire or armature shared probably 60 rubber covered or the core or ring covered with 4 or 5 times the thickness that lbe jumbo bars are covered, and the wire having hard rubber between costs and jumbo paper between each layer in addition soaked in the non-inflammable material we have. Commutator bars wide apart & jumbo paper used in addition to the quadruple mica, that used on Municipal. Their copper wire connections from Commutator. Iron ring of armature on Wooden hub as in new maachine which gives extra insulation. Commutator only being for 50 ampere inches of wood made in many pieces all wires leading from brushes including brush holder covered with hard rubber put on as is done by Hand rubber Harness Co--or Elluloid might be used--If flexible wires used double flexible rubber tubing can be used--Base of Dynamo must be insulated from earth to measure [mega----]---both must pass through Hard rubber bushings with large surface. Wires from Dynamo should go upward towards wall to suspended system all of which is covered with at least 1/16 hard rubber or double flexible tubing.####(2) Field Magnets should be wrapped 1/16 thick with gumbo paper & wine rubber insulated, it will be large wire say No. 8 as it is to be worked by separate dynamo####All switches that are used to disconnect dynamo must break through at least six contacts in series and extra resistance at each dynamo may be regulated to reduce amperes almost to point of making it motor before throwing Dynamo off--####Each Dynamo or pair of Dynamos must be arranged to be Raised from slale of rest & got up to speed by the gradual action of a friction clutch & when up to speed locked by a pas[clive?] lock to the driving pulley & then thrown into circuit. Its field being previously energized by being put in contact with the field circuit which comes from the main regulating station,####Information must be obtained from the Water Engineers as to the manner they propose to furnish their shaft. 2500 hp on each shaft would be better than 5000 & 1500 would be better still for our purpose or if they could give us 1000 hp unit where we could control the water wheel.####(3) It would render unnecessary all the clutching etc., We could start the wheel with its 2 pair of Dynamos of 1000 hp get them to right speed & throw them an machine with 20000 hp. There would be 20 such units perhaps 20 shaft holes in the rock would be too expensive####but we should do away with Rope driving as we could connect a double Dynamo at each end of the water wheel shaft it being driven in the wide providing the speed could be got high enough--300 realitions per minute. The Dynamo Armature being 6 feet in diameter multipolar Dynamo--####(4) all the fields of the motors are wound with large wire & each pair of motos have their fields in series & then all multiple arced to one local dynamo which is regulated by its field--an independent regulating resister is connected in each field so all fields can be balanced & also to disconnect gradually to prevent disruptive sparks. The local Dynamos may be regulated in the usual manner as in lighting.####There will probably be 3 stations in Buffalo, from which proceeds the regular 3 wire system and a two wire system of 600 or 700 olts for power--part of the Dynamos are wound for 3 wire & part for 600 to 700 olts according to demand,####The main from Niagara passes through Niagara village overhead to the outskirts of Buffalo thence underground to the 3 stations one after the other & a vacant lot is bought at extreme end of line or opposide side of city#### (5) [crossed out material] over the whole [crossed out material]. This lot should be at least 100 by 100. or 4 city lots, 5 holes should be dug [diagram] These holes should go to the water line, and be 20 x 20 in the bottom sheet copper should be placed 1/16 thick & all connected together with a number of small wires brazed on which wires should be three times the cmillage of the main & all connect with it--over the copper should be thrown two foot thick of Coke & then filled in--There should be a man hole perfectly dry into which the main comes & also the ground wires & into which a man can go with safety--####(6) If it is found that there is not round available in the buffalo stations to connect the local dynamos direct to the motor shafts a belt could be used or preferably rope could be used & dynamos put up stairs, on the other hand they could be connected direct as before & half of them motor & Dynamos kept down stairs & 1/2 up stairs the iron beams could be strengthened,####It is proposed to take 20000 hp to Buffalo & sell as much for light as possible and the balance for power all motors below 5 hp being put on light & let across the 220 volts & anything above this on the special power ckt=####Edison tubes & general div[----] for 3 [min?] light and Siemens able for 600 volt power ckts.####Pole [leve?] from Niagara. Two line of poles, Earth used as return, poles wood, 40 feet high, all other wires must go underneath,####(7)wire 1/4 inch diameter hard drawn 80 poles to the mile--####[drawing]####English oil insulators extra heavy [opo as almake?] House over each set of insulators sufficient to keep them perfectly dry--poles 12 inches at the top. Brace poles: 30 @ 32 feet long 6 ' at top.####Poles must be 45 instead as 40 above stated as they must be: 5 feet in ground & Brace poles: 4 feet against a chestnut plank at bottom of hale--####Everything must be calculated so that if each wire is coated with 2 1/2 inches of ice & the wind is 60 miles an hour the factor of safety must be at least 4.####No trees or other things must come sonear that they will fall on the wires if blown or cut down.#### [line crossed out]####must run by different routes (8) & [----] at the####The underground of 5 miles for Buffalo on high time---####The underground is composed of 8 separate cables, each insulat4ed with Hooper ruber in 4 then taped hard with a good tough tape 1/8 thick the coered with 1/4 under of harder soft rubber in several layers & over this is wound 1/4 inch manilla rope light side by side then laid in iron troughs porcelain lined each cable raised from the bottom by a strip of porcelain then when all are say 3 inches apart the whole trough is filled with an asphaltic compound poured hot & the depth of trenh being not less than 5 feet. The temperature must never cause this compound to get brittle, The top of the box is then put on with rubber gaskets & the whole dashed over with molten asphaltic compound, the underneath as well--####The manholes where the tap is taken from the high main must be of brick of ample dimensions--perfectly dry and the working platform suspended from above or hard rubber pillars at outskirts at Buffalo where underground [commences?] must have a house [----] around it like a signal tower in this house. Every wire must be connected together & to ample lightening arrester, with our space, & good copper ground the same at Niagara & a person must be in charge of each####The choking effect of the Dynamos at eah end will cause the arresters always to work--there should be a Quadruple set one being in position & [co---] burnt out the attendent from below should be able to turn a rod & throw in another,####The method of starting a factory motor at Niagara in a mill is shown in a drawing--####(10) [Note: arithmetic scribbles in the margin]####Niagara Dynamos 500 hp electrical, 8000####Buffalo Motors 500 hp electrical, 8000####Buffalo power Dynamos, 8000####or $16 per horse power, not including field chargin Dynamo with spare & starting Dynamo with spare at each station & at Niagara it doesn't include field dynamo--The cost of these will be at Niagara $1 per horse power, at Bu [Wart?] 1.50 as there are 3 stations, cost of starting Dynamos at each station on $600 for whole station.####Rough estimate cost Niagara 4 stations for 20000 hp for buffalo alone.####Buildings 1 stor brick plain roof 75 feet wide####each bldg 150 feet long--at $55 per foot which is cost####phonogh bldg $33,000.####foundation for 40 dynamos at $300 each####$12000--Cost 40 Dynamos of 500 E.H.P each at 16 & 1 fortified 14 per HH####$340,000--Belting or rather rope $250 per machine--####$10,000--Cluthes $500 each $20,000 switches, indicating apparatus regulating Resistances####$12,000. wiring stations $8000 labor errecting####$10,000--Filling up Regulating station 1/2 mile being extremes $17000.#### (11) Earth wire at Niagara with manhole etc. $4000--####Buffalo: 45 motors at 8000. $360,000, 90 single Dynamos 4500 $405,000####Regulating Dynamo at 1 per hp, $20,000####Motor Mains for 10000 hp, $250,000####Mains for Electri Light & small power $450,000####Apparatus at 3 stations $15,000 each, $45,000####Cost poles $60, $135,000---####cost 5 miles underground High olt $5 foot $130,000####Cost ground real estate, $12,000####Cost 3 buildings & ground####$25,00 each, $75,000####Cost right of way, $25,000####(12) square diagram and arithmetic scribbles####(13)####[Note: Arithmetic scribbles in the margins]Total####Niagara 4 stations, one stations####Bldg--33,000, 38,000####foundations dynamo 12,000, 20,000####Dynamos & field D--340,000, 36,000 hp--14 per hp 504 on####Gearing shafts & pill--- locks 30,000####Cluthes 20,000####Switches 15,000####Wiring stations 12,000####Luber 15,000####Regulation office fitting 12,000####15 pet loss on conductors amount leaving dynamo at Niagara 33,120 hp####Total: $470,000####without water or shaft connection.####3 stations at Buffalo with 10000 hp 600 voltmeter net on [cromium?] belt & 1000 hp 3 wire light####150000 jet net in ------ house####Motors 392000 28000 hp-####Dynamos 364000, 26000 hp####Reg dynamo 20000, 20000####Motor Mains, 3 stations mile limit, or 2 miles ------ 450,000####Apparatus 50,000 45,000####Copper pale line 220,000 206####Poles Line 150,000 135,000####underground 150,000 130,000####Ground wire 12000 12000####Bldge Right of way 90000 45000####(14)####[Note: Arithmetic scribblings in the margins]####Cost Buffalo 1.707.000####Niagara 470,000####Total 2,177,000####Wire forgotten 118000/2.295,000####10000 hp of light is only sold on average of 3 hours, at 125 per m which is lower than gas at Buffalo I believe, the receipts would be 21 cents per day per horse power for 312 days which would be 65.52 per year per horse power deducting 12 lamps at 37 cents each or 4.44 leaves 61.08. for each horse power, or $610,000--gross. The 10000 hp sold for power, charging 25 per year for all under 50 hp and from 50 to 100, charge $15 and from 100 to 200 $12, and from 200 to 500 $10--would stop all from using engines--Say average price obtained was for 10 hours $13. This gives 130,000 gross which added to light. 610000 - 130000/ 740,000####(15)####[Expenses at Niagara chart follows]####(16), [Expenses at Buffalo chart follows]####(17) [Expenses at Buffalo continues, another chart of Expenses at Niagara follows.]####(18) [This is a diagram of the dynamos at Buffalo and Niagara]####(19) [This is a diagram of power stations#### (20) [This is a similar diagram]#### (21) [This is a similar diagram]#### (22) This is a diagram of machinery at a factories at Niagara#### (23) [This is a page with arithmetic scribbling]#### (24) [This is a diagram of motors and dynamos]####(25) [This is a page of arithmetic]####(26)####Expenses night and day including supplies, to us depreciation, insurance at Niagara on Rope power, local electric and cable to Buffalo 188000####Expenses at Buffalo including taxes Depreciation insurance en-----t--- 269000/ $457,000####Receipts####3000 h.p at 40, 120,000####3000 hp at 30, 90,000####4000 hp at 20, 80,000/ 290,000####150000 lights 3 hours daily at 1/2 cent hour equivalent to one dollar per [M?] or equivalent light about 80 [cts?] 312 days a year including 1/2 h.p & less: 702,000####160000 hp wire rope at $10 160,000 25000 '' '' local electric at 10 per h.p 250000/ 1,402,000####(27)####Gross receipts 1,402,000 Expenses 407,000/ Profit 945,000####The 3 industries requiring most power on 1st flour mills, lumber and electric metallurgy####Horse power per man is####Cotton 1.49, Grist Mills 13.20, Iron & Steel 2.82, Lumber sawed, 5.56, Paper, 5.07, Silk 0.28, Woolen, 1.23, Worsted, 0.87, Electro disposition, 500 h.p per man####Hence the Company should have an off shoot to [suct?] a 10000 bbbl mill daily and a 5 @ 1000 h.p copper induction works to utilize the 20000.####Electric at Niagara####New York uses 82000 h.p in grist mills being greatest amount in any state.####(28)####Porters estimate for tunnel for 120,000 h.p Canals for 52000. Pit sluices, wheels, etc for 360000 h.p for Buffalo to -ut 20000./ 1.500.000####Niagara Station Electric 700,000 4 cables laid one of which is spare, 710,000 3 ccentral stations at Buffalo with out work system for power distrubition for 10000 h.p and net [worth?] for 150,000 lights or 10,000 h.p with all appliances started in operation but without power, customers, motors. 1.714.000####Cost of building for 16,000 h.p Rope transmissions, sluices wheels etc. 544,000####Cost of mains for 20,000 h.p within 3 miles of Niagara Village for 18 hours of 10,000 h.p 12 houjrs of 1000 h.p: 75,000/$5,243,000####(29) [This page is more calculation of costs for the Niagara plant]####(30) [This page is much like the last]####(31) [This page has arithmetic scribblings]####(32) [This page as well]####(33) Expenses at Buffalo 3 stations continuous running--10,000 hp from 7 am till 6 pm 10000 hp from 5 pm tapering off till 7 am.-----[Total 115.300]####(34) [This page is more cost accounting]####(35) [This page is the same]####(36) [This page is similar]#### (37) [This is similar]####(38) Estimates of taking 36000 hp at Niagara and delivering 20,000 hp in the premises of the consumer at Buffalo--The division being 10,000 hp in 150,000 lamps and 10,000 hp of power on the belts of the motors of the consumers. One single station at Niagara and three stations at Buffalo. [Estimates follow]####(39) [Expenses at Niagara]####(40) [More estimates]####(41) 1 Porters estimate for tunnel for 120,000 hp--Canals for 52.000. Pits sluices wheels etc for 360,000 hp for Buffalo to net 20000.[-----Total $5,243,000]####(42) 2 Expenses nights and day including supplies Taxes depreciation, insurances at Niagara or Rope power. Local electri and Cable to Buffalo 188.000####Expenses at Buffalo including taxes Depen Insurance Executive 269.000/ $457.000---Receipts….290.000####150,000 lights 3 hours daily at 1/2 cent hour equivalent to one dollar per M, or equivalent light about 80 cents. 312 days in year including 1/2 horse power & less, 702,000####16000 hp wire rope at $10 160,000, 25,000 hp local electri at 10 per hp 250,000/1,402,000####(43) 3 Gross receipts 1,402,000, Expenses 457,000/Profit, 945,000####The 3 industries requiring most power is 1st Flour mills, Lumber, & Electrometollurgy--Horse power per man is----500 hp per man.####Hence the Co should have any offshoot to erect a 10,000 661 mill daily and a 5 @ 7000 hp Cooper [redidiew?] works to utilize the 20000.####Electri at Niagara--####Nyork has 82000 hp in grist mills being greatest amount in any state,####5,600,000 bonds at 90 5pct####10,000,000 stock-- 6 pct####(44) [This page is arithmetic scribbling]#### (45) [arithmetic scribblings]#### (46) [arithmetic scribblings]#### (47) [This is a chart of cost and power accounting]#### (48) [More cost accounting#### (49) [More cost accounting]####(50) [More cost acounting]####(51) [More cost accounting]####(52) [two small diagram drawings and arithmetic]####[name mentions: Thos Edison, Albert H Porter]

Mentions

Date

1889-00-00

Decade

1880-1889

Type

Identifier

D8933ACT

Folder Set

D8933

Title

[D8933ACT], Memorandum, Thomas Alva Edison, 1889

Microfilm ID

126:163

Publisher

Thomas A. Edison Papers, School of Arts and Sciences, Rutgers University