[PT031AAH1], Technical Note, Thomas Alva Edison, November 2nd, 1889



Omnibus ALS draft caveat [filed caveat is W100ACA]. Street railways; includes rectifying AC into DC current. Then goes into 200-volt DC distribution system. Then phonograph (governor; shifting between recorder/reproducer). Utilizing waste chimney heat. Kinetoscope (describes photographing). Back to phonograph. Use a Kodak device to determine position of sun and horizon at sea. Rope transmission brake for freight trains; also variations on pneumatic train brake. Street car motor. 20 autograph text pages; 69 drawings. TEXT: Nov 2 1889 Caveat##Fig 1 & 2 represents a form of friction gearing especially adapted to that form of Electric Street Car such as the Sprague Motor. The friction wheel replaces a gear wheel & is mounted on a lever so as to be removable thus allowing the motor to be running at full speed when the Car is started. The wheel may be of metal, rawhide, Leather, celluloid, Lead, Babbit, Copper– The dynamo is connected to it by a universal joint-- A loose belt as in fig 3 may be used.##Fig 4. shews device for translating Alternating Currents into Currents in all one direction which serve to work a continuous current motor. A is the iron core of the transformer B the high volt coil worked by an alternating machine C a small coil used to work the polarized relay. F D & E are coils [overstruck: wound opposite to each other. The middle being connected] which are the low volt coils. A Reversing device is connected to the relay and reverses the coil just at the moment when there is a change of sign so the spark on the points will be very small.##fig 5 shews two transformers. A being connected to the supply main all the time and provided with a helix & sucking coil without iron so that when the A transformer becomes loaded the lever will be drawn up and the transformer B thrown in circuit--##Fig 6 shows the same thing but with both high & low coils thrown in or out according to the supply– This device saves the loss during the hours when but little of any light is used.##Fig [overstruck: 9] 7 is an ordinary Siemens type of Dynamo wound in two sections and provided with 4 contact segments. The contacts being made at the point of change of sign##Fig 8 shews a street Railway system with Electric Cars provided with Condensers to prevent rapid changes of current from effecting telephones & also as protection from lightning##Fig 9 shews Large magnet with armature on placed in main line through which all the cars must get their current. This serves to weaken the current at the moment of starting the Cars & thus move the armature & field– The size of the field is such that it is only saturated when all the Cars are starting It may be placed at the station or a number may be placed along the line in the same and at intervals so all current going to any car must pass through the magnets.##fig 10 is device for changing alternating currents into currents in one direction##Single coil X is high tension coil a small coil works the polarized relay– two large wire coils wound in opposite directions have the cross wire connected to morot & their ends to the relay points the lever of which connects to motor The coils by action of relay are thrown out in in according to sign of Current & at the moment when there is scarcely any current the position of the relay coil timing the point change.##Fig 11 shews the relay coil just over the double coils##Fig 12 is same as 10 but currents are recd from distant station in same direction but going through two coils produce same effect as alternations##Fig 13 shews a system of electric lighting in which there is unlike the three wire system no two sources of electromotive force. The two electromotive forces being connected in multiple instead of series as in the three wire system. In this system the neutral wire connects between the Dynamos connected in multiple instead of connecting between the two Dynamos in series as in the 3 wire system The Dynamos A&B form a sources of energy of 200 volts with no central wire between them C is connected to the main in same direction as A##The field coils of A&B are connected across the 200 volt circuit C has 100 volts. If all lamps are off at 2 C furnishes current If all of 1 A&B furnishes the current. The 200 volts are met by counter pressure of 100 volts at C leaving but 100 volts, C being run as a motor giving its power back to the steam source without loss If a short circuit occurs on either circuit the fields of either A or B are short circuited & it becomes a motor reducing the volts from 200 to 100--##Fig 14 shews this principle arranged for 3 circuits. The object of dividing AB into two is to obviate the effect only of short circuits should they ever occur otherwise a single Dynamo could be used [overstruck: and its field coil split in two half The] both AB & C being regulaleable the Emf could be kept exact for the Lamps– Short cktg does not effect the 3 wire system whereas in every variation of this principle device must be used to obviate the results which domes form short circuiting outside the station##fig 15 shews the same system with 200 volt dynamo A & 100 volt dynamo C. half of the field of A being short circuited when a cross occurs on the line.##Fig 16 shews double iron fields The short circuiting of half the wire not only weakens the field by removing the current but the iron [overstruck: of] on which the coil is serves as a magnetic shunt & quickly reduces Electromotive force of Dynamo--##Fig 17 shews the Double fields the current being obtained from an exciting Dynamo##Fig 18 shews plain system without provision for short circuiting##Fig 19 shews system connected to mains by feeders--##fig 20 shews this system applied to 3 circuits.##Fig 21 shews a system whereby by switch Dynamo can be thrown from one side of split to the other.##fig 22 [line drawn for text not entered]##Fig 23 shews series coilson field of high tension dynamo opposed to regular current energizing the field--##Fig 24 shews 200 volt Dynamo with double field coils & two relays on short circuit occuring on one or other branch relay closes on opposite branch by increase of voltage or if points are under lever relay opens & this throws in big resistance in ½ of the field or opens it altogether or throws in a counter current coil & reduces volts from 200 to 100##fig 25 shews variation of previously described system of directly short circuiting part of field on 200 volt dynamo##fig 26 shews a 3 circuit arrangement same as fig 24##fig 27 shews practically same thing as 24– separate exciter being used & relays are differential##fig 28 shews same as 27 without separate exciter.##Fig 29 & 30 shews systems.##Fig 31 shews a system with feeders indicators etc##Fig 32 shews a system##Fig 33 [later overstruck and changed to 1] shows a Tromp with air ball to throw out the rubber diaphragm to lift the spectacle of the phonograph##Fig 34 shews the Tromp applied to the regular raising lever##Fig 35 a mechanical device for doing same thing##Fig 36 a friction governor which has the all important peculiarity that one of the friction surfaces is loose like a [overstruck: break] brake shoe hence is seated perfectly in the act of governing which is important in the phonograph to prevent Jerky regulation##Fig 37 shews the shifting Talking device on phonograph The same diaphragm serving to record & reproduce. The lever for adjusting the reproduction is springy & is sprung over into the groove in end of adjusting screw.##fig 38. shews spectacle with single diaphragm for recording & reproducing having shifting devices not shown provided with a determining pendulum the whole being hinged on spectacle arm & a tightning screw to hold in position after pendulum has determined position this allows any thickness of cylinder being used--##Fig 39 shows an air cushion or dash pot to prevent breaking mechanism on spectacle arm when carelessly droppped--##fig 40 shows a mandril with same diameter & not taper. This is dipped in the recording material & a shell is formed by the chilling effect of the mandril. A harder shell not taper outside but tape inside is previously prepared & while the dipped shell is warm & expanded it is shoved over the prepared shell & contracts on it= The Expansion Coefficient of the shells are the same##fig 41 shews such a compound phonogram blank The inner shell has great strength & is cheaper & may be used again--##fig 42 is a magnetic seperator.##Fig 43 & 44 also magnetic separators##Fig 45 is device for utilizing waste Chimney heat of boilers to heat the air forced under the grate by a blower##Fig 46 is a Kinetoscope. The sensitive film is in the form of a long band passing from one reel to another in front of a square slit as in fig 47. on each side of the band are rows of holes exactly opposite each other & into which double toothed wheels pass an in the Wheatstone Automatic telegh instrument. This ensures a positive motion of the band-- The film being transparent. The Leyden jar spark illuminates back & by means of a lense the image is projected on a screen Instead of a leyden spark a continuous light with revolving shutter may be used##The operation of photographing is as follows– in front of the apparatus where the film is exposed the Microphotographic apparatus is placed. A Motor preferably an Electric Motor drives a shaft at great velocity on this shaft is a sleeve carring double toothed wheels engaging in the holes of the band of photo film The connection between this sleeve & shaft is a friction one, on the sleeve is a release escapement with fork connected to the tongue of a polarized relay. This polarized relay is reciprocated by means of a break wheel alternating currents throughout by an alternating small dynamo The time is so arranged with these currents that The band is advanced one step for a photograph 10 times in one second the escapement working of course 10 times in a second but of this 1/10 of second 0/10th of the 1/10th the band is still with 1/10 of te 1/10 of a second the band is moving In other words If there were but one photograph to be taken in 10 seconds the band would be shifted in 1 second & stand still 9 seconds, and this proportion holds good up to any number of photographs per second until the mechanism fails to act, by thus causing the band to be in a state of rest 9/10 of the time yet taking 10 photographic images per second most perfect results are obtained & the great necessity of a shutter is modified.##The break wheel which controls the polarized relay may be connected to the screw shaft of the phonogh hence there will a positive connection & all the movements of a person photoghd will be exactly coincident with any sounds made by him--##fig 48 gives rough idea of positive feed mechanism of course this principle can be applied to cylinders covered with the photo material as well as in bands--When a leyden spark is used the break wheel is arranged that it takes place while bind is in state of rest or if shutter used receiprocating or revolving It is to be released by the same devices that release & move the band and the shutter so devised that light only passes to one image while projecting it on the screen when in a state of rest.##Fig 49 shews a single diaphragm with both Recording & Reproducing points thereon with the usual weight but made adjustable by a ball on a lever held by friction.##Fig 50 shews the recorder & reproducer on the same lever by moving the diaphragm apparatus in direction of arrow the recording point is carried away from the center or highest pont of cylinder & reproducing ball takes its place hence one can either record or reproduce by moving the lever & diaphragm from or towards the cylinder--##fig 51 shews the recorder ball cut in half & cupped out so that if placed in the position shewn it acts as a recording tool but if the same is given a half rotation it acts as a reproducer without cutting the record##Fig 52 shews an automatic tightening nut on the swinging arm of the phonograph##Fig 53 shews the raising lever on the new phonograph##Fig 54 shews a double recording and reproducing device whien recording the ball lever is thrown in position shewn by dotted lines but when reproducing is thrown forward in the cup of the recorder--##Fig 55 shews swinging arm on diaphragm lever whereby either Recorder or Reproducer can be thrown into position.##Fig 56 is same as 50--##Fig 57 shows Recorder & reproducer points on one lever & diaphragm holder pivoted so as to swing bringing the recorder or reproducer in contact with the cylinder as case may be##Fig 58 & 59 shews the single diaphragm with lever & double points.##Fig 60 shews chip box on turning off tool on the diaphragm arm##For determining the position of the Sun & horizon at sea use a Kodak instantaneous photograph apparatus & afterwards measure the distance on the photogh this would render artificial horizons unnecessary and probably the photo by proper glasses for screening could get positive even in fog– To detect icebergs at sea send a severn foot Sims-Edison torpedo ahead of ship with reels of wire on ship 20 feet apart & run Torpedo mtor faster than ship both wires being taut, rudder in center of torpedo veers either way one wire taut other loose hence rudder thrown around bringing it straight##Fig 61 shews a wire rope transmission for brake for freight trains a worm wheel is removeably connected to the regular brake wheel into this meshes a worm driven by a pulley and wire rope– The frame holding pulley & worm being removeably connected to the walk on the car or otherwise say 10 or 15 wheels are connected up. The wire rope passes over all the pulley wheels to a main pulley in the Caboose then by a wire rope to Engine to winder pulley connected to the wheel or separate engine a friction wheel in Caboose may also work the rope. The tight side is the one that is not connected to the Brake pulleys hence on braking the train the all important object is gained of applying the brakes first to the last cars gradually pulling them towards the engine which is due to the slack The work wheel or worm are connected to brake through friction which being adjustable serves always to put some degree braking power on##fig 62 shews side view##fig 63 shows regular brake moved step by step with an air tromp pulsations being sent over flexible pipe from Engine a seocndary small tube of flexible pipe works a small releasing tromp.##Glycerine or water & glycerine or light oil say parafine oil could be used instead of air. A piston in large chamber on Engine worked up & down giving necessary pulsations.##fig 64 shews a water motor steam could be used##Fig 65 shews a phonograph diaphragm apparatus connected to lever through an oil bath to permit of thick or thin cylinders being used without adjustment##fig 66 shews connection through magnetism##Fig 67 a sucking coil##Fig 68 a mailing box for phonograms##[overstruck: T A Edison]##Fig 69 shews the field magnet of a street car motor which the wire wound wholly on bobbins of Hard rubber or other insulating material which are slipped over the cores the object being to prevent piercing when the field is broken##Fig 70 shews the method of connecting the street car track rails together by bolt nuts & Copper strips the rail being tinned as also the Copper strips– I also propose to electrically weld the iron to the copper--##Fig 71 shews a multiplying device for phonographs 200 thread screws are difficult to make, but 50 thread are easily made hence by using a 50 thread to inch shaft & rotating it 4 times slower than phonogram we get 200 threads to inch on its surface; but this must be positive driven & gears making Irregularity & belts slip hence I use a perforated [truing?] bank & insure positiveness by pins on the wheels entering the holes##T A Edison







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[PT031AAH1], Technical Note, Thomas Alva Edison, November 2nd, 1889

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Thomas A. Edison Papers, School of Arts and Sciences, Rutgers University